quadbin

CORE

You can learn more about Quadbins in the Spatial Indexes section of the documentation.

QUADBIN_BBOX

QUADBIN_BBOX(quadbin)

Description

Returns an array with the boundary box of a given Quadbin. This boundary box contains the minimum and maximum longitude and latitude. The output format is [West-South, East-North] or [min long, min lat, max long, max lat].

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the bbox from.

Return type

ARRAY<FLOAT64>

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_BBOX(5207251884775047167);
-- -22.5
-- 21.943045533438188
-- 0.0
-- 40.979898069620127

QUADBIN_BOUNDARY

QUADBIN_BOUNDARY(quadbin)

Description

Returns the boundary for a given Quadbin as a polygon GEOGRAPHY with the same coordinates as given by the QUADBIN_BBOX function.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the boundary geography from.

Return type

GEOGRAPHY

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_BOUNDARY(5207251884775047167);
-- POLYGON((-22.5 40.9798980696201, -22.5 21.9430455334382, 0 21.9430455334382, 0 40.9798980696201, -22.5 40.9798980696201))

Quadbin Cell edges are spherical geodesics. The boundary edges can be interpreted as straight lines in other GIS tools, so to export the exact shape of the cells, use ST_GEOGFROM(ST_ASGEOJSON(geog). In this process, BigQuery will add intermediate points to preserve the geodesic curves.

QUADBIN_CENTER

QUADBIN_CENTER(quadbin)

Description

Returns the center of a given Quadbin. The center is the intersection point of the four immediate children Quadbins.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the center from.

Return type

GEOGRAPHY

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_CENTER(5207251884775047167);
-- POINT(-11.25 31.952162238025)

QUADBIN_DISTANCE

QUADBIN_DISTANCE(origin, destination)

Description

Returns the Chebyshev distance between two quadbin indexes. The origin and destination indices must have the same resolution. Otherwise NULL will be returned.

  • origin: INT64 origin quadbin index.

  • destination: INT64 destination quadbin index.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_DISTANCE(5207251884775047167, 5207128739472736255);
-- 1

QUADBIN_FROMGEOGPOINT

QUADBIN_FROMGEOGPOINT(point, resolution)

Description

Returns the Quadbin of a given point at a given level of detail.

  • point: GEOGRAPHY point to get the Quadbin from.

  • resolution: INT64 level of detail or zoom.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_FROMGEOGPOINT(ST_GEOGPOINT(-3.7038, 40.4168), 4);
-- 5207251884775047167

QUADBIN_FROMLONGLAT

QUADBIN_FROMLONGLAT(longitude, latitude, resolution)

Description

Returns the Quadbin representation of a point for a given level of detail and geographic coordinates.

  • longitude: FLOAT64 longitude (WGS84) of the point.

  • latitude: FLOAT64 latitude (WGS84) of the point.

  • resolution: INT64 level of detail or zoom.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_FROMLONGLAT(-3.7038, 40.4168, 4);
-- 5207251884775047167

QUADBIN_FROMQUADKEY

QUADBIN_FROMQUADKEY(quadkey)

Description

Compute a quadbin index from a quadkey.

  • quadkey: STRING Quadkey representation of the index.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_FROMQUADKEY('0331110121');
-- 5234261499580514303

QUADBIN_FROMZXY

QUADBIN_FROMZXY(z, x, y)

Description

Returns a Quadbin from z, x, y tile coordinates.

  • z: INT64 zoom level.

  • x: INT64 horizontal position of a tile.

  • y: INT64 vertical position of a tile.

Constraints

Tile coordinates x and y depend on the zoom level z. For both coordinates, the minimum value is 0, and the maximum value is two to the power of z, minus one (2^z - 1).

Note that the y coordinate increases from North to South, and the y coordinate from West to East.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_FROMZXY(4, 7, 6);
-- 5207251884775047167

QUADBIN_ISVALID

QUADBIN_ISVALID(quadbin)

Description

Returns true when the given index is a valid Quadbin, false otherwise.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin index.

Return type

BOOLEAN

Examples

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_ISVALID(5207251884775047167);
-- true
SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_ISVALID(1234);
-- false

QUADBIN_KRING

QUADBIN_KRING(origin, size)

Description

Returns all Quadbin cell indexes in a filled square k-ring centered at the origin in no particular order.

  • origin: INT64 Quadbin index of the origin.

  • size: INT64 size of the ring (distance from the origin).

Return type

ARRAY<INT64>

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_KRING(5207251884775047167, 1);
-- 5207128739472736255
-- 5207234292589002751
-- 5207269476961091583
-- 5207146331658780671
-- 5207251884775047167
-- 5207287069147135999
-- 5207902795658690559
-- 5208008348774957055
-- 5208043533147045887

QUADBIN_KRING_DISTANCES

QUADBIN_KRING_DISTANCES(origin, size)

Description

Returns all Quadbin cell indexes and their distances in a filled square k-ring centered at the origin in no particular order.

  • origin: INT64 Quadbin index of the origin.

  • size: INT64 size of the ring (distance from the origin).

Return type

ARRAY<STRUCT<index INT64, distance INT64>>

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_KRING_DISTANCES(5207251884775047167, 1);
-- {"index": "5207128739472736255", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5207234292589002751", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5207269476961091583", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5207146331658780671", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5207251884775047167", "distance": "0"}
-- {"index": "5207287069147135999", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5207902795658690559", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5208008348774957055", "distance": "1"}
-- {"index": "5208043533147045887", "distance": "1"}

tip

The distance of the rings is computed as the Chebyshev distance.

QUADBIN_POLYFILL

QUADBIN_POLYFILL(geog, resolution)

Description

Returns an array of quadbin cell indexes contained in the given geography (Polygon, MultiPolygon) at a given level of detail. Containment is determined by the cells' center. This function is equivalent to QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE with mode center.

  • geog: GEOGRAPHY representing the shape to cover.

  • resolution: INT64 level of detail. The value must be between 0 and 26.

Use QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE with mode intersects in the following cases:

  • You want to provide the minimum covering set of a Polygon, MultiPolygon.

  • The input geography type is Point, MultiPoint, LineString, MultiLineString.

Return type

ARRAY<INT64>

Examples

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL(
  ST_GEOGFROMTEXT('POLYGON ((-3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865, -3.7144088745117 40.40965661286395, -3.70659828186035 40.409525904775634, -3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865))'),
  17
);
-- [5265786693163941887, 5265786693164466175 ,5265786693164728319]
SELECT quadbin
FROM UNNEST(`carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL(
  ST_GEOGFROMTEXT('POLYGON ((-3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865, -3.7144088745117 40.40965661286395, -3.70659828186035 40.409525904775634, -3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865))'),
  17
)) AS quadbin;
-- 5265786693163941887
-- 5265786693164466175
-- 5265786693164728319
SELECT quadbin
FROM <project>.<dataset>.<table>,
  UNNEST(`carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL(geog, 17)) AS quadbin;

QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE

QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE(geog, resolution, mode)

Description

Returns an array of quadbin cell indexes contained in the given geography at a given level of detail. Containment is determined by the mode: center, intersects, contains.

  • geog: GEOGRAPHY representing the shape to cover.

  • resolution: INT64 level of detail. The value must be between 0 and 26.

  • mode: STRING

    • center returns the indexes of the quadbin cells which centers intersect the input geography (polygon). The resulting quadbin set does not fully cover the input geography, however, this is significantly faster that the other modes. This mode is not compatible with points or lines. Equivalent to QUADBIN_POLYFILL.

    • intersects returns the indexes of the quadbin cells that intersect the input geography. The resulting quadbin set will completely cover the input geography (point, line, polygon).

    • contains returns the indexes of the quadbin cells that are entirely contained inside the input geography (polygon). This mode is not compatible with points or lines.

Mode center:

Mode intersects:

Mode contains:

Return type

ARRAY<INT64>

Examples

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE(
  ST_GEOGFROMTEXT('POLYGON ((-3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865, -3.7144088745117 40.40965661286395, -3.70659828186035 40.409525904775634, -3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865))'),
  17, 'intersects'
);
-- [5265786693153193983, 5265786693163941887, 5265786693164466175, 5265786693164204031, 5265786693164728319, 5265786693165514751]
SELECT quadbin
FROM UNNEST(`carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE(
  ST_GEOGFROMTEXT('POLYGON ((-3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865, -3.7144088745117 40.40965661286395, -3.70659828186035 40.409525904775634, -3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865))'),
  17, 'intersects'
)) AS quadbin;
-- 5265786693153193983
-- 5265786693163941887
-- 5265786693164466175
-- 5265786693164204031
-- 5265786693164728319
-- 5265786693165514751
SELECT quadbin
FROM <project>.<dataset>.<table>,
  UNNEST(`carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL_MODE(geog, 17, 'intersects')) AS quadbin;

QUADBIN_POLYFILL_TABLE (BETA)

QUADBIN_POLYFILL_TABLE(input_query, resolution, mode, output_table)

Description

Returns a table with the quadbin cell indexes contained in the given geography at a given level of detail. Containment is determined by the mode: center, intersects, contains. All the attributes except the geography will be included in the output table, clustered by the quadbin column.

  • input_query: STRING input data to polyfill. It must contain a column geom with the shape to cover. Additionally, other columns can be included.

  • resolution: INT64 level of detail. The value must be between 0 and 26.

  • mode: STRING

    • center returns the indexes of the quadbin cells which centers intersect the input geography (polygon). The resulting quadbin set does not fully cover the input geography, however, this is significantly faster that the other modes. This mode is not compatible with points or lines. Equivalent to QUADBIN_POLYFILL.

    • intersects returns the indexes of the quadbin cells that intersect the input geography. The resulting quadbin set will completely cover the input geography (point, line, polygon).

    • contains returns the indexes of the quadbin cells that are entirely contained inside the input geography (polygon). This mode is not compatible with points or lines.

  • output_table: STRING name of the output table to store the results of the polyfill.

Mode center:

Mode intersects:

Mode contains:

Output

The results are stored in the table named <output_table>, which contains the following columns:

  • quadbin: INT64 the geometry of the considered point.

  • The rest of columns included in input_query except geom.

Examples

CALL `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL_TABLE(
  "SELECT ST_GEOGFROMTEXT('POLYGON ((-3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865, -3.7144088745117 40.40965661286395, -3.70659828186035 40.409525904775634, -3.71219873428345 40.413365349070865))') AS geom",
  12, 'intersects',
  '<project>.<dataset>.<output_table>'
);
-- The table `<project>.<dataset>.<output_table>` will be created
-- with column: quadbin
CALL `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_POLYFILL_TABLE(
  'SELECT geom, name, value FROM `<project>.<dataset>.<table>`',
  12, 'center',
  '<project>.<dataset>.<output_table>'
);
-- The table `<project>.<dataset>.<output_table>` will be created
-- with columns: quadbin, name, value

QUADBIN_RESOLUTION

QUADBIN_RESOLUTION(quadbin)

Description

Returns the resolution of the input Quadbin.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin from which to get the resolution.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_RESOLUTION(5207251884775047167);
-- 4

QUADBIN_SIBLING

QUADBIN_SIBLING(quadbin, direction)

Description

Returns the Quadbin directly next to the given Quadbin at the same resolution. The direction must be set in the corresponding argument and currently only horizontal/vertical neigbours are supported. It will return NULL if the sibling does not exist.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the sibling from.

  • direction: STRING 'right'|'left'|'up'|'down' direction to move in to extract the next sibling.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_SIBLING(5207251884775047167, 'up');
-- 5207146331658780671

QUADBIN_TOCHILDREN

QUADBIN_TOCHILDREN(quadbin, resolution)

Description

Returns an array with the children Quadbins of a given Quadbin for a specific resolution. A children Quadbin is a Quadbin of higher level of detail that is contained by the current Quadbin. Each Quadbin has four direct children (at the next higher resolution).

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the children from.

  • resolution: INT64 resolution of the desired children.

Return type

ARRAY<INT64>

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_TOCHILDREN(5207251884775047167, 5);
-- 5211742290262884351
-- 5211751086355906559
-- 5211746688309395455
-- 5211755484402417663

QUADBIN_TOPARENT

QUADBIN_TOPARENT(quadbin, resolution)

Description

Returns the parent (ancestor) Quadbin of a given Quadbin for a specific resolution. An ancestor of a given Quadbin is a Quadbin of smaller resolution that spatially contains it.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin to get the parent from.

  • resolution: INT64 resolution of the desired parent.

Return type

INT64

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_TOPARENT(5207251884775047167, 3);
-- 5202783469519765503

QUADBIN_TOQUADKEY

QUADBIN_TOQUADKEY(quadbin)

Description

Compute a quadkey from a quadbin index.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin index.

Return type

STRING

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_TOQUADKEY(5234261499580514303);
-- '0331110121'

QUADBIN_TOZXY

QUADBIN_TOZXY(quadbin)

Description

Returns the zoom level z and coordinates x, y for a given Quadbin.

  • quadbin: INT64 Quadbin from which to obtain the coordinates.

Return type

STRUCT<INT64, INT64, INT64>

Example

SELECT `carto-un`.carto.QUADBIN_TOZXY(5207251884775047167);
-- z  x  y
-- 4  7  6